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As mentioned above, the first settlements in human history were created near lakes or rivers, as these areas have favored the development of agriculture and livestock. These activities provided the necessary food in the first societies and therefore made possible the permanent establishment in one area, leading to the creation of the first settlements. Therefore, human history is identified with water, which was a key condition of for the development of civilization

Ancient civilizations defied water, as it was quite clear that without it their survival would be impossible. The water was considered a deity, symbol of happiness and eugenic, youth and health, and abundance. In Greek mythology many deities like nymphs, Zeus' daughters were associated with freshwater and had magical powers and crisp, while almost all the rivers were deified. Nowadays, water is used by all modern religions as a means of purification.

Since ancient times, water was also connected to the science of medicine. Thus, the thermal baths were an integral stage of treatment according to Aesculapius while in the Hippocratic treatment the effect of climate and the healing properties of water in health were systematically studied, thus forming the basis for the development of modern hydrotherapy. The thermal baths have evolved over the years, from ancient times until today, as through thermal natural resources both physical and mental health are promoted.

Water’s movement, sound, as well as the sense of rejuvenation and spiritual and physical wellness it generates influenced the arts, as it is evidenced in both painting and sculpture, music and literature. Furthermore, water is connected with activities like sports (swimming, water our sports etc.), recreation (hiking, canyoning etc.) and culture (water museums, aquariums, etc.). All the above are only a few examples that evidence the relationship between man and water. In any case, water is a life-giving natural resource that challenges human senses (hearing, taste, smell, touch, sight), while it is essential for the survival and improvement of quality of life.

Furthermore, water can be considered a basic structural element, in shaping landscapes. It is obvious that the physical existence of water in a place creates particular environmental conditions attracting and encouraging the development of many animal and plant species, while the interaction with the other nature elements creates landscapes of special natural beauty and scientific importance (Edessa Waterfalls, Ohrid Lake, Prespa Lakes, Vegoritida - Petron - Cheimaditida and Zazari Lakes system etc.).

Structural interventions that introduce water into artificial landscapes also have multiple positive effects on humans. For example, water element (rivers, streams, lakes) in the urban planning sector, apart from the image of the landscape, improves the area’s microclimate conditions, acts as traffic corridor of urban biodiversity and at the same time is a central object attracts the interest of the people for the development of various cultural practices.

The water then interacts greatly with the biotic and abiotic components of the environment and is the reference point of life, the central point of both the scientific and theoretical thinking.

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