Water as a Source of Destruction:
Nowadays both human activities and natural processes such as climate change, have affected the quantitative and qualitative features of water globally. The wetland ecosystems are largely threatened by these activities. Major factors affecting them may be the focused and diffuse pollution caused by human activities such as farming, industry, uncontrolled residential expansion, the occupation of wetland areas for construction of all kind of infrastructure, overexploitation and land clearings, while due to climate change ecosystems are threatened by drought and desertification or flooding. The above quantitative and qualitative disorders in water balance could lead to the destruction of habitats and the natural environment, water scarcity, social and cross-border conflicts, diseases and the deterioration of public health and therefore the loss of lives.
It is therefore essential to protect water through its rational management. Our country’s main tool towards the promotion, preservation and protection of water resources is the European Directive 60/2000 / EC which incorporates the international common strategy on the management of water resources and aims inter alia at preventing further deterioration, protecting and enhancing the status of aquatic ecosystems, as well as immediately dependent terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands in terms of their water needs. Ιt also aims at promoting sustainable water use based on long-term protection of available water resources, strengthening the protection and improving the aquatic environment by specific measures for the progressive reduction of discharges, emissions and losses of priority substances and the cessation or phasing out of discharges, emissions and losses of priority hazardous substances, ensuring the progressive reduction pollution of groundwater and preventing its further pollution and mitigating the effects of floods and droughts. Thereby it ensures the adequate supply of surface and groundwater good quality water needed for sustainable, balanced and equitable water use, and promotes pollution limitation in groundwater, it protects territorial and marine waters and it promotes the achievement of objectives set by the international agreements.